Timeline

Early Islamic History (c. 570—692)

570: Prophet Muhammad* is born in the Arabian town of Makkah

610: Prophet Muhammad* receives his first revelation, starts inviting to Islam

615: Persecuted Muslims in Makkah flee to seek refuge in Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

616: Prophet’s tribe is isolated and boycotted by Quraysh for protecting him

619: Boycott of Banu Hāshim ends – supporters Khadījah* and Abu Tālib pass away

620: Isra and Mi’rāj – the Prophet’s miraculous journey to Jerusalem and Heaven

622: Prophet Muhammad* and his Companions migrate from Makkah to Yathrib

624: Battle of Badr – Muslims forces defeat the larger army of Quraysh

625: Battle of Uhud – Muslim army is defeated by the Quraysh

627: Battle of Khandaq – Quraysh and allies unsuccessfully lay siege to Madinah

628: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah is signed between the Muslims and Quraysh

629: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah violated by Quraysh – the Muslims conquer Makkah

632: Prophet Muhammad* passes away – Abu Bakr* becomes the first caliph

633: Wars of Apostasy – rebellious Arab tribes defeated, Arabia united

634: Abu Bakr* passes away – Umar b. al-Khattāb* becomes caliph

637: Byzantine defense of Syria collapses three years after the Arab invasion

638: Umar* visits Jerusalem to officially take control of the city

642: Muslims conquest of Egypt is completed with the conquest of Alexandria

644: Umar is assassinated – Uthmān b. Affān* becomes caliph

656: Uthmān* is assassinated – rebels occupy Madinah – Alī b. Abi Tālib* becomes caliph

661: Alī* is assassinated by the Khawārij – Mu’āwiyah b. Abi Sufyān* becomes caliph

To be continued…

* salAllāhu alayhi wa sallam [tr. may Allāh’s peace and blessings be upon him] radiAllahu anhu (or anhā) [tr. may Allāh’s be pleased with him/her]

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